美国人会不会过一个“无肉 感恩节” ?Will Americans Ever Go Meat-Free for Thanksgiving?
网友【english】于【太平洋时间 2019-11-27 21:15:17】分享在【美国信息交流】版块    7749    1    6

Becoming a vegetarian wasn't that hard for Harper Dutton. The 26 year old doesn't really love the taste of meat anyway. So this summer, to help the environment, she quit.

对于哈珀·达顿来说,成为素食者并不难。 这位26岁女孩也并不真正喜欢肉的味道。 因此,今年夏天,为了环保,她戒了肉食。

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What's been more difficult is preparing to host Thanksgiving dinner. Weeks before the holiday, Dutton was practicing making stuffing without bacon or lard at her home in an Atlanta suburb. “It is proving to be extremely challenging,” she says.

更难的是准备举办感恩节大餐。 假日前几周,达顿(Dutton)在亚特兰大郊区的家中练习做不加培根或猪油的馅料。 她说:“事实证明,这极具挑战性。”

As evidence grows that eating less meat can help curb the effects of climate change, more and more Americans are preparing meat free holiday meals for the first time. According to a Nielsen poll taken in December 2018, 61% of Americans are willing to reduce meat consumption to help offset livestock's environmental impacts. Sales of plant based meat replacements in the U.S. have grown 31% over the past two years, according to a report by the data technology company Spins commissioned by plant based food interest organizations.

随着少吃肉可以抑制气候变化影响证据的增多,越来越多的美国人第一次准备无肉的假日大餐。 根据尼尔森(Nielsen)2018年12月进行的一项民意调查,有61%的美国人愿意减少肉类消费以帮助抵消牲畜对环境造成的影响。 根据以植物为基础的食品利益组织委托的数据技术公司Spins的一份报告,过去两年来,美国以植物为基调的肉类替代品的销售额增长了31%。

Tofurky, an alt meat brand famous for its eponymous tofu based turkey replacement, has barely been able to keep up with the increased demand. In February, the company had to bring in a $7 million private investment to meet production needs for 2019. “We were not ready for what seems to have been the tipping point being met,” says Jaime Athos, the CEO. “Honestly, we didn't expect it to happen so fast.”

以同名豆腐为原料的火鸡替代品而闻名的替代肉类品牌Tofurky几乎无法满足需求的增长。 今年2月,该公司不得不引入700万美元的私人投资,以满足2019年的生产需求。“我们似乎还没有为达到临界点做好准备,”首席执行官Jaime Athos如是说。 “老实讲,我们没想到它会发生得如此之快。”

Evolving attitudes toward vegetarianism in the U.S. have contributed greatly to the plant based industry's growth, says Adam Shprintzen, author of The Vegetarian Crusade and an assistant professor of history at Marywood University in Scranton, Pa. Though some adopted vegetarianism in the 19th century simply because meat was so expensive, the practice was historically associated with movements like women's rights, abolitionism and economic justice, casting the choice to avoid meat as a statement.

素食十字军的作者,宾夕法尼亚州斯克兰顿市的玛丽伍德大学历史学助理教授亚当·什普岑(Adam Shprintzen)说,美国素食主义的态度演变为植物产业的发展做出了巨大贡献。尽管有些人在19世纪采用素食主义是因为肉太贵了,这种习俗在历史上与诸如妇女权利,废奴主义和经济正义之类的运动息息相关,因此人们选择避免吃肉是一种陈述声明。

“Before 1900, generally speaking, vegetarianism is seen as kind of a radical social reform movement tied to any number of social reform movements in the U.S.,” Shprintzen says. “Vegetarianism as a movement undergoes a pretty significant transformation in the U.S. kind of neatly at the turn of the 20th century.” As the notion that a meatless diet could improve personal health gained traction, more meat alternatives became available. Being vegetarian no longer meant being stuck with vegetables and rice.

Shprintzen还说:“在1900年之前,素食主义被视为一种激进的社会改革运动,与美国任何量级的社会改革运动都有联系。” “作为一种运动的素食主义在20世纪之交的美国正经历着相当重大的转变。”随着人们认为无肉饮食可以改善个人健康的观念日益受到人们的关注,更多的肉替代品应运而生。 素食不再意味着受囿于只吃蔬菜和米饭。

During World War I, it was even seen as patriotic. A 1918 article from the Chicago Daily Tribune, headlined Have You Ever Dined Upon the Mock Turkey, highlighted the alternative meat options of the day, as the Council of National Defense promoted vegetarianism as a means of rationing meat.

在第一次世界大战期间,素食者甚至被视为是爱国的。 1918年,《芝加哥每日论坛报》的一篇文章的标题为《你有没有吃过模拟火鸡肉》,强调了当今的替代肉类选择,因那时国防委员会提倡素食主义是作为定量配给肉类的一种手段。

Today, meatless diets are far from radical. Senator Cory Booker, a Democratic presidential candidate, is a proud vegan. Dunkin' Donuts and Burger King feature meatless sausages and burgers. The wide availability and improving taste of meat alternatives, especially Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat products, make going vegetarian much easier.

如今,无肉饮食远非激进饮食。 民主党总统候选人、参议员科里·布克(Cory Booker)是一位自豪的素食主义者。 邓金甜甜圈和汉堡王都推出无肉的香肠和汉堡。 肉类替代品,尤其是Impossible Foods 和 Beyond Meat 产品的广泛供应和味道的改善,使吃素变得更加容易。

But Americans may not be ready to skip meat at Thanksgiving since the holiday and turkey are so intertwined. Alexander Hamilton reportedly once said, “No citizen of the U.S. shall refrain from turkey on Thanksgiving Day,” and every year, the U.S. President marks that tradition by pardoning a turkey on the White House lawn. “It's part of us, it's part of our culture, it's imbued within who we are as Americans,” says Shprintzen.

但是美国人可能不准备在感恩节不吃肉,因为假期和火鸡是密不可分的。据说亚历山大·汉密尔顿曾说过:“感恩节那天,没有任何美国公民会不吃火鸡。”而且,美国总统每年都在白宫草坪上赦免一只火鸡,以此来铭记这一传统。 Shprintzen说:“这是我们的一部分,是我们文化的一部分,它浸润着我们作为美国人的身份认同。”

Indeed, only 5% of Americans say they are full vegetarians, according to Gallup polling data. But Darren Seifer, an analyst at market research firm NPD, predicts more vegetarian options will appear on holiday tables this year, as NPD data shows 18% of adults in the U.S. are trying to eat more plant based foods. And for vegetarian home chefs like Dutton who are making the effort this year, the tide feels like it's turning just a bit—as long as her guests like the stuffing.

确实如此,根据盖洛普(Gallup)的民意测验数据,只有5%的美国人说他们是彻头彻尾的素食者。 但市场研究公司NPD的分析师达伦·塞弗(Darren Seifer)预测,今年假期餐桌上会出现更多的素食选择,因为NPD数据显示,美国18%的成年人正尝试吃更多的植物性食品。 对于像Dutton这样努力去尝试的素食家庭厨师来说,这种潮流好像正有所所改变(更多人转变为素食者),只要她的客人喜欢这种馅料。

ByRachel E. Greenspan
This appears in the December 02, 2019 issue of TIME.
这篇发表在《时代周刊》2019年12月2日期刊上

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